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L1666

N2666

P3666

V6666

Z2666

Z3666

Z5666

AG666

BP666

HL666

HV666

HW666

KZ666

LB666

LD666

PJ666


Hawker Hurricanes

 

 

Hawker Hurricane Prototype K5083

Hawker Hurricane First monoplane fighter to serve with RAF, the Hawker Hurricane was designed under Sydney Camm's direction as logical progression from Fury biplane, and known, in earliest project form, as Fury Monoplane with 660 hp R-R Goshawk VI steam-cooled engine. Subsequently evolved around R-R P.V.12 (Merlin) in 1934 as Interceptor Monoplane. Construction of prototype (K5083) launched in 1935, conforming to Specification F.36/34, with 890 hp Merlin C and eight 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning machine guns in (fabric-covered) wings. First flight at Brooklands on November 6, 1935, and prototype retired from test-flying  early-1939.

Hawker Hurricane I: Production initiated March 1936 and initial contract for 600 confirmed July 1936, to Specification 15/36. First production aircraft flown October 12, 1937, with 1,030 hp Merlin II. Subsequent orders brought total Hawker Hurricane I production to 3,774 in Britain by Hawker (1,924) and Gloster (1,850), plus 160 for RAF by Canadian Car and Foundry in Canada. In course of production, metal-covered wings replaced original fabric-covered type, and 1,030 hp Merlin III replaced Merlin II. First few aircraft had retractable tailwheel and lacked ventral fin. Service introduction late-1937 with No 111 Squadron at Northolt; up to 11 squadrons served in France 1939-40, another in Norway in 1940 and 29 squadrons of Hawker Hurricane Is available to Fighter Command for Battle of Britain in July 1940, some later transferring to night fighting role. With large filter over carburettor air intake, tropicalised Hawker Hurricane Is served in Malta, the Middle East and the Far East (Singapore and Burma) before arrival of Mk Us in larger numbers. One Mk I armed with two 20 mm Oerlikon cannon operational in 1940; three others fitted with four-cannon wing armament in late 1940. Several export orders placed pre-1939 met by diversions from RAF contracts and subsequent run-on production; other supplies to Allied and Commonwealth forces made to meet operational needs as they arose. Thus, from 1938 onwards, 24 Hawker Hurricane Is went to Yugoslavia (where 20 more built by Zmaj factory); 12 to Romania; 35 to Turkey; two to Persia; 12 to Finland; 15 to Belgium (plus production by Avions Fairey - see later note); 20 to the RCAF and more than 30 to SAAF. One Hawker Hurricane I (of ten intended) reached Poland in 1939 and one, with tropical filter, reached Australia in September 1941. One ex-RAF Mk I diverted to Hawker demonstrator/test-bed as G-AFKX remained in use through 1943. Max speed, 316 mph (508 km/h) at 17,750ft (5,410 m). Cruising speed, 272 mph (438 km/h) at 15,000ft (4,575 m). Time to 15,000 ft (4,575 m), 6.3 min. Service ceiling, 33,200 ft (10,120 m). Range, 445 mis (716 km). Empty weight, 5,085 Ib (2,308 kg). Gross weight, 6,661 Ib (3,024 kg). Span, 40 ft (12.19 m). Length, 31 ft 5 in (9.58 m). Wing area, 258 sqft (23.97 m2).

Hurricane Prototype K5083

Hawker Hurricane II: Designation change to signify introduction of two-speed, single-stage supercharged 1,390 hp Merlin XX, first flown (in a Mk I) on June 11, 1940. Production switched progressively as Merlin XXs became available, with deliveries to RAF beginning early September 1940. Hawker Hurricane HA retained same eight-gun wing as Mk I, with initial batch of Series 1 s having same fuselage and Series 2s having strengthened fuselage to accept modified wing with later armament options. About 12 Mk IIAs had lengthened nose (7 in/18 cm), but modification not adopted for production. Introducing a 'universal' wing, Hawker Hurricane IIB, starting late-1940, had 12 Browning 0.303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, and Hawker Hurricane IIC (first flown February 6, 1941) had four 20 mm Hispano cannon. All Mk Us could have tropical filters for service in Middle and Far East, and could carry two 44 Imp gal (200-1) drop tanks, 88 Imp gal (400-1) ferry tanks, two 250 Ib (113.5 kg) or (later aircraft) 500 Ib (227 kg) bombs. A Hawker Hurricane II armed with two 40 mm Vickers Type S cannon (and two Browning machine guns) first flew on September 18, 1941 and Hawker Hurricane IID entered production with this armament (or a few with Rolls-Royce BF cannon). Some Hawker Hurricane IIBs and IICs carried six (later eight) 3 in (7.62 cm) rocket projectiles underwing, after tests starting February 1942. Designation Hawker Hurricane HE applied to aircraft wired to accept machine guns or cannon, and bombs, without the need to change wing sets. Service use of Hawker Hurricane IIA began early September 1940; of IIB fighter in February 1941; of IIB fighter-bomber ('Hurribomber') in May 1941; of IIC in April 1941, IID in March 1942 and of HE in September 1941. A few Hawker Hurricane IIBs and IICs fitted in 1941-42 with AI Mk IV or Mk V radar for night fighting, either in fuselage radio rack or underwing pod in place of drop tank. All Mk II variants served with UK-based squadrons and also, extensively, overseas; by November 1941, 25 Hawker Hurricane squadrons based in Middle East and others in Malta, Iceland and Soviet Union. In Middle East, some 200 Hawker Hurricanes (including 20 Mk Is re-engined with Merlin XX) modified for tac-R (with one camera and full armament) or PR (with two cameras and no armament). Hawker Hurricane II squadrons extensively engaged in India/Burma, 1942-44. Other Hawker Hurricane roles included meteorological recce in UK and ME with unarmed Hawker Hurricane Met Mk IIC; anti-aircraft co-operation and training, using 'war-weary' fighters. Hawker Hurricane II production in UK (shared between Hawker, Gloster and Austin Motors) totalled 8,676, comprising 451 Mk IIA, 2,948 Mk IIB, 4,711 Mk IIC, 296 Mk IID and 270 Mk HE, plus 100 Mk Is converted (by Rolls-Royce) to Mk IIA. Several Commonwealth squadrons flew Hawker Hurricane Us alongside the RAF, especially RAAF and SAAF units in the Middle East and RCAF in the UK, using aircraft retained on RAF strength. In India, seven squadrons of the IAF flew Hawker Hurricanes (Mks IIB, IIC and IV) from June 1942, using some 300 aircraft transferred from RAF stocks. Following on from Mk I supplies, Turkey received 38 Hawker Hurricane IIBs and 91 IICs (of which, 44 equipped for recce), and two squadrons of the Royal Egyptian Air Force flew ex-RAF Hawker Hurricane Us (and some Is) from 1941 to 1945. Starting in 1941, several squadrons of the Free French Air Force flew Hawker Hurricanes in North and West Africa and the Middle East. Hawker Hurricane production ended with delivery of Mk IIC PZ866 (later G-AMAU) in August 1944. Data for Mk IIC follow. Max speed, 327 mph (526 km/h) at 18,000ft (5,486 m). Time to 15,000ft (4,575 m), 6 min. Service ceiling, 35,600 ft (10,850 m). Range with drop tanks, 426 mis (685 km). Empty weight, 6,577 Ib (2,986 kg). Gross -weight, 7,544 Ib (3,425 kg). Span, 40 ft (12.19 m). Length, 32ft 3 in (9.83 m). Wing area, 258 sqft (23.97 m2).

Hawker Hurricane III: Proposed Mk II airframe with 1,390 hp Packard-Merlin 28. Not built.


Hawker Hurricane IV: Developed Hawker Hurricane HE with uprated Merlin and 'universal' wing carrying two 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Browning guns and wiring for either two 40 mm Vickers S cannon or eight 60 Ib (27.1 kg) rocket projectiles. Prototype with 1,620 hp Merlin 32, deepened ventral radiator, Rotol four-bladed propeller and tropical filter first flown March 14, 1943. Second prototype with definitive 1,390 hp Merlin 27 and three-bladed Rotol propeller flown March 23, 1943. Service use began May 1943 (No 164 Sqn) and equipped six squadrons in the UK, one in ME and two in Burma for combat use; others for second-line duties. Production total, 524 by Hawker.

Hawker Hurricane V: Redesignation of first Mk IV (KX405) in July 1943, with Merlin 32 boosted for optimum low-altitude performance. Two more prototypes, no production.
Belgian Hawker Hurricane: Contract for 80 aircraft placed with Avions Fairey SA on behalf of the AeM (Belgian Air Force) in 1938. Similar to Hawker Hurricane I but with wing armament of four 0.50 in (12.7 mm) FN-built Browning guns. Three built and two flown by May 1940, when German invasion terminated production. Nineteen British-built Hawker Hurricane Is (including four which force-landed in Belgium in 1939) on AeM charge in May 1940, saw no action.
Yugoslav Hawker Hurricane: Production of 100 Hawker Hurricanes for Royal Yugoslav Air Force initiated 1939 by Zmaj (60) and Rogozarski (40), but only 20 built by Zmaj by April 1941, when production terminated. One Hawker Hurricane fitted in Yugoslavia with Daimler-Benz DB 601A for comparative trials.

Soviet Hawker Hurricanes: Nearly 3,000 Hawker Hurricanes supplied to Soviet Union 1941-1944 from British and Canadian production, including 210 Mk IIA (some Mk I conversions), 1,557 Mk IIB, 1,009 Mk IIC, 60 Mk IID and about 100 Mk IV. In Russia, some Hawker Hurricanes adapted to have 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine guns of US origin, and a few modified to two-seaters for training.

Canadian Hawker Hurricanes (Mks X, XI, XII): Production of Hawker Hurricane initiated by Canadian Car and Foundry at Fort William late-1938 against British contract, and first flight of Hawker Hurricane I (<P*>120) on January 10, 1940. Production total of 1,451 (perhaps 1,454) included Mk Is and Us with Merlin II/III and Merlin XX respectively, equalling British standard aircraft, and the following specifically Canadian marks.
Hawker Hurricane X: As Hawker Hurricane I with 1,390 hp Packard-Merlin 28 and Hamilton Standard propeller.

Hawker Hurricane XI: As Hawker Hurricane X, but with Canadian equipment in place of British.
Hawker Hurricane XII: As Hawker Hurricane XI, but with 1,390 hp Packard-Merlin 29 and Hawker Hurricane IIB-type 12-gun wing. Some eight-gun Hawker Hurricane Xs later fitted with Merlin 29s in Canada designated Hawker Hurricane XIIA.

From CCF production, RCAF received 400 Hawker Hurricane XIIs, of which 150 transferred to RAF, and 80 Hawker Hurricane Xs transferred from RAF. All other Canadian production was for supply to Britain, where many convened to Sea Hawker Hurricane (or completed as such before delivery), leading to Sea Hawker Hurricane XI, XII and XIIA designations. RCAF operational use of Hawker Hurricane began in Canada with No 1(F) Sqn in 1939 (using British-built Mk Is) and continued in UK. Ten RG-AF squadrons flew Hawker Hurricanes in defensive role in Canada.

Hawker Hurricane I L1666

Block 1 within an order of 600 aircraft (L1547 - L2146). Built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd., of Kingston and Brooklands, to specification 15/36 under contract No. 527112/36. The first 430 aircraft were manufactured with fabric covered wings; the remaining 170 with metal covered wings, some aircraft later re-fitted with metal wings at Maintenance Units within the R.A.F. Aircraft deliveries commenced on the 15th December, 1937, and were completed on 6th October, 1939. This aircraft served with No253(F) “Hydrabad” squadron at RAF Kenley in 1940. It crashed during an interception patrol on October 11th 1940 at Staplehurst in Kent. (force landing), whilst being flown by Robert Innes. Top

Hawker Hurricane I N2666

 

Block 2 within an order batch of 30 aircraft (N2645 - N2674). Built by Hawker Aircraft Limited, Kingston and Brooklands, to Contract No. 751458/38. Aircraft powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin III engines driving Rotol or De-Havilland three blade propellers. Aircraft deliveries commenced on the 29th September, 1939 and were completed on the 1st May, 1940. Top

Hawker Hurricane I P3666

Block 2 within an order batch of 45 aircraft (P3640 - P3684). The third production batch of 544 aircraft, this included 44 replacement aircraft for operational attrition. Built by Hawker Aircraft Limited, Kingston, Brooklands, and Langley, to Contract 962371/38. Powered by Rolls- Royce Merlin III engines. Aircraft deliveries commenced on the 21st February, 1940, and were completed on the 20th July, 1940. The average rate of production was three-four aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane I V6666

 

Block 3/G within an order batch of 40 aircraft (V6665 - V6704). Third production batch of 1,700 aircraft built by Gloster Aircraft Co, to contract 85730/40/23a. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin III or Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines, driving Rotol or De-Havilland three blade variable pitch propellers. Aircraft delivered between July 1940 and August 1941, average rate of production 4-5 aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane II Z2666

Block 5 within an order batch of 45 aircraft (Z2661 - Z2705). This was the fifth production batch produced by Hawker Aircraft Limited, to contract 62305/39. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines. Aircraft deliveries commenced on the 14th January, 1941 and were completed by the 28th July, 1941, average rate of production was five aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane II Z3666

Block 5 within an order batch of 45 aircraft (Z3642 - Z3691). This was the fifth production batch produced by Hawker Aircraft Limited, to contract 62305/39. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines. Aircraft deliveries commenced on the 14th January, 1941 and were completed by the 28th July, 1941, average rate of production was five aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane IIB Z5666

 

Block 3/G within an order batch of 45 aircraft (Z5649 - Z5693). Third production batch of 1,700 aircraft built by Gloster Aircraft Co, to contract 85730/40/23a. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin III or Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines, driving Rotol or De-Havilland three blade variable pitch propellers. Aircraft delivered between July 1940 and August 1941, average rate of production 4-5 aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane X AG666

Block 2/C within an order batch of 20 aircraft (AG665 - AG684).The second production block produced by Canadian Car & Foundry Company, Fort William, Ontario, Canada. The first 20 aircraft arrived in Britain in June, 1940. Second delivery of 300 aircraft arrived between August, 1940 and April, 1941. The final 20 aircraft arriving in April, 1941. The first 320 aircraft were completed by the manufacturer with eight gun wings and powered by Packard Merlin 28 engines. Probably shipped to Russia. Top

Hawker Hurricane II BP666

 

Block 7 within an order batch of 48 aircraft (BP628 - BP675).The seventh production batch of aircraft produced by Hawker Aircraft Limited, at Langley, and Brooklands. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines. Aircraft were delivered between the 17th March, 1942 and the 23rd November 1942. Average rate of production was 7-8 aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane II HL666, HV666, HW666

 

Block 7 within an order batch of 30 aircraft (HL654 - HL683).Block 7 within an order batch of 41 aircraft (HV634 - HV674). Block 7 within an order batch of 36 aircraft (HW651 - HW686).The seventh production batch of aircraft produced by Hawker Aircraft Limited, at Langley, and Brooklands. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engines. Aircraft were delivered between the 17th March, 1942 and the 23rd November 1942. Average rate of production was 7-8 aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane IIC KZ666, LB666, LD666

Block 9 within an order batch of 43 aircraft (KZ646 - KZ688). Block 9 within an order batch of 49 aircraft (LB639 - LB687). Block 9 within an order batch of 45 aircraft (LD651 - LD695). Ninth production batch by Hawker Aircraft Limited, at Brooklands, and Langley. To contract 62305/39Vb. Powered by Rolls-Royce Merlin XX and 27 engines. Aircraft were delivered between the 18th April, 1943 and the 29th September, 1943. The average rate of production was 6-7 aircraft per day. Top

Hawker Hurricane XII PJ666

Block 7/C within an order batch of 36 aircraft (PJ660 - PJ695).Seventh and final production batch by Canadian Car & Foundry Company, Montreal, Canada, during 1942-1943. Powered by Packard Merlin 29 engines, driving Hamilton Standard propellers. Top

 

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